Man kann die Präpositionen überwiegend in zwei Gruppen einordnen:

Ortspräpositionen und Richtungspräpositionen

Ortspräpositionen sind:

(in etwa in der Reihenfolge ihrer Häufigkeit)

by, near = bei, an  My school is near the station. 
over = über  The plane is flying over the airport. 
under = unter  The child is sitting under the table. 
at = bei  He is waiting at the door. 
in = in, drinnen  She is in the house. 
behind = hinter  She is waiting behind her friend. 
in front of = vor  The car is parking in front of the house.  
between = zwischen  Tim is standing between John and Mike. 
opposite = gegenüber  The cinema is opposite the supermarket. 
round = um herum  They are sitting round the table. 
beside = neben  The girl is walking beside her mother. 
above = oberhalb  Mike lives in the appartement above ours. 
below = unterhalb  John lives in the one below! 

Richtungspräpositionen sind:

to = hin (in, ins etc.)  I go to school. (to town, to my friends, etc.) 
into = hinein  He is going into the supermarket. 
out of = heraus  Other people are coming out of it. 
on, onto = auf, drauf  The cat jumps on the couch. 
off, from = runter, weg  A bit later she jumps off again. 
across = über  He is walking across the street. 
up / down = rauf, runter  They are walking up / down the hill. 
along = entlang  We are driving along the road. 
after = hinter(her)  The policeman is running after the thiefs. 
through = durch  He is coming through the door. 
past = vorbei  The bus drives past the bus stop. 

over = drüber  The kids jump over the fence. (Zaun)